Modern
Modern - (French moderne from the Latin. Modemus - new, modern) - the period of development of European art at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries, the main content of…

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Classicism
Unlike classics, classicism is not a qualitative, but a functional concept; it expresses a certain tendency of artistic thinking, based on the desire for simplicity, clarity, rationality, and the consistency…

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Architecture
Architecture (lat. Architectura, from the Greek. Architekton - builder), architecture, a system of buildings and structures that form the spatial environment for the life and activities of people, as well…

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Romanesque art

Romanesque art, the style of architecture and other branches of art that originated in Western Europe in the 10th century. The term “Romanesque” (French Romanesque, Spanish romanico, German Romanic from Latin romanum) appeared at the beginning of the 19th century, when historians and romantic artists, discovering the art of the early Middle Ages, noticed that the architecture of this era reminds of ancient roman. The Romanesque era – the time of the emergence of the pan-European architectural style. The leading role in this process was played by the peoples of Western Europe. The formation of the Western European Romanesque culture due to continuous wars and the resettlement of peoples took place later than in the East, in Byzantium, but proceeded more dynamically. The main feature of the Romanesque era is openness to external influences.

Ornamentation of Romanesque art, mostly borrowed in the East, was based on the limiting generalization, geometrization and schematization of the pictorial image. In everything, simplicity, power, strength, clarity were felt. Characteristic is the absence of any specific program in the placement of decorative motifs: geometric, “animal”, biblical – they are interspersed in the most bizarre way. Sphinxes, centaurs, griffins, lions and harpies peacefully coexist nearby. Most experts believe that this whole fauna is devoid of the symbolic meaning that they are often attributed to, and has a predominantly decorative character.

The art of sculpture and painting was closely associated with the art of book miniatures, which flourished in the Romanesque era. However, here we do not see a single style. In the art of illuminating manuscripts, extremely geometrized images, floral designs, and naturalistic elements are equally common.

The art craft developed intensively both in monastic workshops, and in cities, among free artisans and wandering artels of craftsmen. Vessels, lamps, and solder stained glass were made of glass — colored and colorless, the geometric pattern of which was created by lead lintels. However, the bloom of stained glass art came later, in the era of the Gothic style. Especially popular was ivory carving. In this technique caskets, caskets, handwritten salaries, folding diptychs and triptychs, tops of episcopal staffs, crosses, and also oliphants (from Lat. Elephahtus – elephant) – reliquaries in the shape of a hunting horn from an elephant tusk, decorated with medallions – were decorated with medallions made of elephant tusk, decorated with medallions – were decorated with medallions made of an elephant tusk, decorated with medallions and decorated with medallions. and birds. The old technique of notched enamel on copper and gold developed, mainly in the valley of the river Meuse, and later – cloisonne enamel. From the last third of the XII century, workshops of the city of Limoges, later famous for its painted enamels, moved to the first place. For the Romanesque art is characterized by the wide use of iron and bronze. Wrought iron was used to make grilles, fences, curly loops, locks, and chests with characteristic arrow-shaped finishes and semicircular curls. Bronze was used for door knockers in the form of animal or human heads. Bronze doors with reliefs were cast and minted – this tradition has been preserved up to the Renaissance, huge baptistery fonts, candelabra, zoomorphic aquamaniles (French: aquamanile from Latin. Aqua – water and manus – hand).

In the Romanesque art, because of its heterogeneity and the lack of a single style, a multitude of regional art schools have always been distinguished. At the end of the 19th century, the concept of “Romanesque art” also included “Lombard”, “Saxon” and even Byzantine art of the 5th-12th centuries. The basis for such a union, despite the obvious differences in artistic forms, was the generality of Christian ideology, the use of “Romanesque” architectural elements: domes, semi-circular arches, massive walls and towers, basilica structures. However, in addition to the dualism of the West and the East, in the Romanesque art there were strong differences of the South and the North. In the North, in Ireland, the “Winchester school” of book miniatures with characteristic Celtic ornaments from plant shoots, made in bright colors, stood out. In the same place, the mastery of ornamental carving in stone and wood of characteristic woven and “abstract animal ornament” reached an extraordinary height.

However, with all the diversity and heterogeneity of Romanesque art, it can be divided into three different periods. At the end of the 10th and the beginning of the 11th centuries, a simple, simple Romanian style emerges, the distinctive features of which are the absence of decorations, flat wooden ceilings and the absence of ornament on the capitals of the columns. The second period (1100–1180) was characterized by the replacement of flat ceilings with arches, firstly boxed, then cross-boxed. Decorations appear in the buildings of this mid-style: a falsely arcade friezes, ornamental portals and the same capitals of the columns. The third period, which lasts until the middle of the XIII century and is called Late Roman or Transitional, develops features that subsequently finally developed in Gothic architecture.

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