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Who and why called them “cheap” is not known. Maybe because the pictures were cut out on lime boards (they called the bast then), maybe because they were sold in…

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Manga

The great interest of people to manga can be explained by the simplicity and accessibility of the expression of artistic thought and ideological intent. Since the Japanese writing is complex and not unambiguous, the distribution and general popularity of manga is very logical. What is manga?

Manga is a special kind of Japanese art, in other words, these are stories in pictures called comics. The word “manga” was invented by the Japanese artist Hokusai Katsushika. In order to describe his drawings, he used two words: “man” – funny, and “ha” – pictures. Figures with the text appeared a long time ago, they looked and were called differently, but it was the word “manga” that stuck as the name of this direction of Japanese visual art.

It should be noted that American comics have contributed to the development of manga. However, even if something “completely European” or “absolutely American” is found in Japanese comics, using this borrowed comic book authors do not leave their culture and do not lose their individuality.

In the first half of the twentieth century, there was a so-called “correct” manga. The fact is that the military used manga as a method of influencing the population, forbidding to discuss and criticize the political situation in the country, as well as showing its political opponents in the best possible way.

In the post-war period, Tezuka Osamu made manga the mainstream of popular culture. He made a revolution in the manga industry by using “cine” techniques in his comics. He began to use close-ups and different points of view, tried to use a lot of pictures in order to better convey the dynamics of movement, facial expressions and create a special psychological impression. As a result of these experiments, now the manga audience covers almost all ages. She eagerly fond of small children, teenagers, middle-aged people and even the elderly.

Manga Summer romance – Tsu GumiManga, mostly devoid of color, i.e. performed in black and white. Most manga are continuation stories printed in newspapers or magazines. Typically, the number of pages set aside in a manga magazine is 15–20. There are plenty of manga magazines in Japan. Each of them is focused on a specific audience. Manguas which are popular with readers are republished in the form of separate volumes – tank tanks. There are also short manga stories, and manga, immediately published in the form of tankoons. Manga characters are ordinary people who live their daily lives, with their own characteristics and shortcomings. They live their lives, develop, improve, die. There are three typical endings: the hero wins (gets the throne, the location of the other sex), the hero dies (usually after victory), the hero seems to win, but actually has a big loss.

The manga creator is called “manga”. Usually one person (often with apprentice assistants) draws comics and writes texts, but there is also group creativity. However, more than three or four people usually do not work on one manga.

In addition to professional manga, there is an amateur doujinshi. Many mangaks began as creators of doujinshi (“doujinsika”). In large cities, there are special markets in which dodzinsiki sell their products in order to find serious publishers for their work.

Manga genres: Echi (these), Hentai (hentai), Seinen (seinen), Shoudjo (shojo), Shoudjo-ai (shojo-ai), Shounen (syonen), Yaoi (Syonen), Mecha (fur), Yuri (yuri ).

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