Sculpture
Sculpture (Latin sculptura, from sculpo - I carve, cut), sculpture, plastic (Greek plastike, from plasso - I mold), a type of fine art based on the principle of three-dimensional, physically…

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Pop art (English pop-art, from popular art to public art) is a trend that took shape first in modern art and then in various spheres of popular culture of the…

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Knitting

Knitting has been around for a long time. Scotland and Scandinavian countries are considered to be his birthplace, although some sources claim that knitting began to exist in ancient Egypt. In those days, in Scotland, knitting was considered a purely masculine occupation and consisted in the art of knitting knots. This exercise was given a magical meaning. It was believed that knitting, besides the fact that it was a trade, can contribute either to patronage or to the wrath of the gods.

Over time, having spread the art of knitting on the ground, in addition to its main purpose – the creation of warm clothing, it also acquired a decorative function.Knitted goods began to appear, which had not only excellent practical properties, but also pleased the eye. In this regard, the methods and techniques of knitting were changed, making this process all the more laborious.

And the subject, which even today facilitates the knitting process for many people and the name to which – the knitting machine was invented by William Lee in 1589. However, the British Queen Elizabeth I refused to grant the patent to the inventor and he moved to France. Where founded the first mechanical knitting workshop.

Later, in France, a knitting machine was invented, which could knit a cloth in the form of a pipe. Accordingly, such an invention could not help but squeeze the products created by hand, as things knitted by hand because of their complexity were more expensive.

Knitting, such as weaving, tailoring, felting, knitting, took the leading positions in tsarist Russia. Already then about 15 thousand farms were engaged in these crafts.

Downy shawl. Hand knitting. Author – Elena Zavorueva. Around 1890, residents of the village Relocation, sisters Murashevy founded a fluff – knitting. They trained peasant women to spin and knit down, handed them yarn and took away their finished products. One downy shawl bound by a skilled craftswoman cost no more than 8 rubles. However, this fishery did not bring much income.

In the 19th century, knitting became a fully female occupation and remains so to this day. The main knitting tools are knitting needles, crochet hooks and knitting machines. Knitting needles are mainly metal, plastic needles also exist. Spokes have different length and thickness. The choice of a particular thickness of the spokes depends on the knitting technique. For example, thick knitting needles are used for knitting thin yarn.

Crochet hooks also come in different sizes: short (12-15 cm) for regular knitting and long (30 – 45 cm), thick and thin (No. 1-6). They can be metal, plastic, wood and bone. For knitting with threads of different thickness, hooks of appropriate sizes should be selected. The most important part of the hook is called the “head”, according to its thickness and determine the number of the hook.

The main material of knitting is yarn. To date, there is a huge amount of it. The most popular types of yarn are: linen, cotton, silk, wool, mohair, angora, cashmere and combination yarn.

Knitting and now remains a very popular area of ​​arts and crafts. Of course, hand knitting is more popular. Great interest in the products created by hand is due to their originality and mostly single copies.

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