Art Evaluation Criteria
The term "art", the definition of "art" can be attributed to a variety of objects - from prehistoric drawings on stones and ceramics to the rubble of household and industrial…

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Cubism
Cubism - (French. Cubisme, from cube - cyb) directed in the first century of the XX century. The plastic language of kibism is based on the deflection and decomposition of…

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Baroque
Baroque - (Portuguese. Baroco - freaky, bad, wrong, spoiled). The term “baroque” has many meanings in the history of art. Among them are narrower, to designate artistic styles in the…

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Gothic ornament

Gothic ornament is very diverse and symbolic. It uses transformed ancient and Byzantine motifs, along with new themes.

A characteristic feature of the Gothic ornament are rectilinear geometric forms, forms in the form of a pointed arch, spherical triangles and quadrangles, floral ornament: leaves of grapes, burdock, oak, ivy, clover, roses, etc. Very often you can find the image of the trefoil and double leaf. Later, images of prickly plants begin to appear: blackthorn, thistle, fern and others.

The art of Gothic ornamentation is very closely associated with sculpture. In sculpture, floral ornamental motifs are often used. The idea of ​​using the motives of real flora in gothic decor becomes a kind of law. Gradually, the rosebuds used in the early Gothic ornament replace the lush bouquets of flowers and fruits. Later, various combinations were used, for example, plant elements and figures.

Architectural elements could be decorated with images of centaurs, human heads, individual figures, episodes from the Bible, historical characters, vine leaves and roses. For example, the garguyas of Notre Dame de Paris depict winged animals.

Gothic ornament A special place in Gothic architecture was allotted to openwork ornament, executed in stone. Circus removed all the lines of staring up lancet arches, three-bladed windows, four-bladed rosettes and magnificent round stained-glass windows of the main facade, called “roses”. Perhaps that is why in Germany the Gothic carving was called “masverk”, that is, the work but the size applied.

In the thirteenth century The new ornament was only an architectural element. At the end of the century, it appears in church silver utensils and begins to gradually penetrate into other genres of applied art. In the XV century. Gothic ornament becomes the main already in all applied arts.

Ceramic tiles, which covered the floors, very often decorated with ornaments. The general ornament was made by a combination of lines of a pattern of separate tiles. In French church architecture, the favorite decor of the floor was the so-called labyrinth, according to which parishioners mixed on their knees, reading prayers. This rite imitated pilgrimage, which was not always possible to carry out because of the remoteness from the holy places.

Gothic ornament. The tiles were decorated with various ornamental motifs: geometric, plant, zoomorphic, anthropomorphic, etc. Very often, when decorating tiles, a combination of palmethoks and plant shoots was used, and a very common type of Gothic ornament – a lily on a high stem. When applying the pattern mainly used in red or yellow, very rarely used black.

When decorating pottery, a cross-painted, engraved pattern or embossed heraldic ornament was used. Most of the products were covered with green icing.

For the decoration of furniture, it is characteristic to use thin plexuses connected with foliate ornament, “linen folds” ornament, tightly woven, twisted branches and leaves.

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Impressionism
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