The art of weaving lace
The art of lace making arouses interest for a long time and has a rich history. It flourished in the Middle Ages. And under the Soviet regime in Russia, this art was considered bourgeois. In the 1920s – 30s, handmade lace-making became one of Russia’s unique folk crafts.
In Tsarist Russia, there were 17 areas where lace was woven. Some of them, later, became crafts, in some lace weaving only for themselves.
Until the mid-1930s, the products of the Russian lace industry were exported only; accordingly, this fact could not but affect the assortment, weaving techniques and material. Mainly at that time they made dimensional laces. The craftswomen of each region had their favorite patterns, which they combined in different ways, turning them into traditional motifs. Measured laces differed a great variety of patterns, ways and manners of execution. Also with measured lace there were a variety of piece goods – bedspreads, capes, napkins, tablecloths, collars, finishes for table and bed linen.
At first these things were performed in modern style. For such things was characterized by complex outlines and floral motifs. Later, with the development of lace crafts, new patterns began to appear. Of great importance in the development of handmade lace was the creation of special vocational schools.
Lace By the mid 1930s the patterns of lace products become more saturated, the motifs become clearer and more recognizable. At the International Exhibition in Paris in 1937, the successes of the Yeletsky lacemakers were awarded a gold medal. Thanks to the skill and talent of Russian lace in the history of world culture, the concept of “Russian lace” appeared.
There are two main types of Russian lace, this is skolochny and numerical. They differ in that skolochny (coupling and pair) weave on a pattern (skolku), made on paper. Pinning lace lace is woven into pieces, which are then connected using a chain hook. The cleavage paired lace is completely woven through the skolka. Numerical laces are woven along a count of loops without skolk, their patterns are symmetrical and are formed from a small number of simple geometric shapes. It can be rectangles, stripes, zigzags, usually made more dense, then rare viscous.
Lace Kalyazin. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Kalyazin was called the city of starch and lace. The earliest lace fishery in Russia was founded here. Here weaved fantazhnoe, coupling, tulle lace. By the middle of the XIX century, developed its own type of glue lace, woven specifically for sheets and decorative towels.
Elets laces are thinner and lighter. Cloth, varies from dense and wide to the grid. Elets’ piece blouses, vests make up of dimensional multi-pair lace.
Mtsensk lace a bit like Yelets. Used coupling weave with narrow linen and traditional folk patterns with thick backgrounds. In the late 19th century, guipures and other fashionable types of lace appear in Mtsensk.
Mikhailovsky lace – linen, multi-pair, decorated with multi-colored floss. Dimensional lace prevails, such forms of lace motifs as festoons and barbs, bells, capes and towns are characteristic.
Rostov lace was mostly woven by novices near the monasteries lying near Rostov and the serf masters. Rostov linen linen, made of fine yarn, can be multi-pair and coupling, in the XVIII century it was also woven from silk. During the nineteenth century, craftswomen adhered to scanned patterns with diverse backgrounds. In coupling weaving, the craftswomen came up with their own background – the Rostov cross, which became known to all of Russia.
Vologda lace consists of a large pattern, which is made of a dense cloth of the same width. The fabric is thick, passing in the middle of the linen, often colored. Characteristic motifs: flowers, leaves, horseshoes, scallops, fans.
In Balakhna has developed its own type of glue lace. Such motifs as peas, eagles, flowering trees were often used. A characteristic feature of Balakhna glue lace is the use of various grids and sets.
At present, there are few lace crafts left. Now lace making is not only folk craft, but also the basis of the profession, which is called “Lacemaker”.