Painting, a form of fine art, works of art, which are created with the help of paints applied to any hard surface. Like other forms of art, painting performs ideological and cognitive tasks, and also serves as a sphere for creating subject aesthetic values, being one of the highly developed forms of human labor.
Painting reflects and in the light of certain concepts evaluates the spiritual content of the era, its social development. Powerfully acting on the feelings and thoughts of the audience, forcing the latter to experience the reality depicted by the artist, it serves as an effective means of social education. Many paintings have documentary-informational value.
By virtue of the clarity of the image, the artist’s assessment of life, expressed in his work, acquires a special persuasiveness for the viewer. Creating artistic images, painting uses color and drawing, the expressiveness of brush strokes, which ensures the flexibility of her language, allows her to reproduce on a plane the colorful richness of the world, the volume of objects, their qualitative originality and material flesh, depth of the depicted space, light – air environment. Painting not only directly and visually embodies all the visible phenomena of the real world, shows a broad picture of people’s lives, but also seeks to discover and interpret the essence of the processes occurring in life and the inner world of man.
Available to this type of art, the breadth and fullness of the coverage of reality affects the abundance of genres inherent in it (historical, household, battle, animalistic, etc.).
By purpose, according to the nature of the execution and the images, they are distinguished: monumental-decorative painting (wall paintings, ceiling lamps, murals) participating in the organization of the architectural space, creating an ideologically rich environment for the person; easel (pictures), more intimate in character, usually not associated with any particular place; decorative (sketches of theatrical and film decorations and costumes); icon painting; miniature (illustrations of manuscripts, portraits, etc.).
The nature of substances that bind the pigment (dye), the technological methods of fixing the pigment on the surface differ oil painting, painting with water paints on plaster – raw (fresco) and dry (and seco), tempera, glue painting, wax painting, painting enamel ceramic paints (binders – low-melting glass, fluxes, glazes – are fixed by firing on ceramics), silicate paints (binder – soluble glass), etc. The mosaic and stained-glass window are directly connected to it, t It is the same as monumental painting, graphic and decorative tasks. For the execution of paintings are also watercolor, gouache, pastel, ink.
The main expressive means of painting – color – by its expression, the ability to evoke various sensory associations enhances the emotional character of the image, and determines the broad graphic and decorative possibilities of this type of art. In the works, it forms a complete system (color). Usually, one or another series of interrelated colors and their shades (gamma colorful) is used, although there is also painting with shades of the same color (monochrome). The color composition (system of arrangement and interrelations of color spots) provides a certain color unity of the work, influences the course of its perception by the viewer, being a specific part of its artistic structure for the work. Another expressive means of painting – drawing (line and chiaroscuro) – rhythmically and compositionally, together with color, organizes an image; the line delimits the volumes from each other, is often the constructive basis of the pictorial form, allows generalized or detailed reproduction of the outlines of objects, to reveal their smallest elements.