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In the history of art, the term expressionism (from the Latin. Expressio – “expression”) is applicable to a wide range of phenomena. And yet, as a definite trend in art, expressionism unites primarily the work of a group of artists who worked in Germany before the First World War.
Since the end of the XIX century. in German culture there was a special view on the work of art. It was believed that it should carry in itself only the will of the creator, to be created “by internal necessity,” which does not need comments and excuses. At the same time there was a reassessment of aesthetic values. Continue reading
Surrealism (from French surrealisme – literally over realism) is a trend in modern bourgeois art, which originated in the early 20s in France. As a characteristic expression of the crisis of capitalist society. Surrealism finds its philosophical foundations in Freud’s subjective idealistic theory. The contradictions that tear apart the bourgeois system, the feelings of horror before the real world, generated by these contradictions among some surrealist painters who have broken away from the people, are embodied by the latter in images that cause aversion to reality, to life. Hence the special interest of the surrealists in the reproduction of nightmares, hallucinations, pathological conditions. Created on the basis of the “principles” of surrealism, the paintings of Salvador Dali are filled with horrors, nightmares, and pessimism. Continue reading
Modernism (from the French moderne modern), the general name of the directions of art and literature of the late 19th and 20th centuries. In a broad sense, it embraces cubism, dadaism, surrealism, futurism, expressionism, abstract art, functionalism, etc. New artistic trends usually expressed themselves as art in the highest degree “modern”, hence the name itself.
At the end of the 19th century, artists, especially impressionists (impressionism), began to organize their own exhibitions, traders began to play an increasing role in popularizing their art. However, for many, the concept of “Modernism” is associated primarily with the 20th century. Continue reading